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Queries ​

Fetching data involves executing query operations using standard GraphQL documents. You can learn more about queries and GraphQL documents here and practice running queries in the playground.

Executing a query ​

GraphQL document ​

Let's take this example GraphQL document throughout this section:

graphql
query getUsers {
  users {
    id
    firstname
    lastname
    email
  }
}
query getUsers {
  users {
    id
    firstname
    lastname
    email
  }
}

TIP

It is recommended to give a name to your GraphQL operations (here getUsers), so it is easier to find them in the Apollo Client devtools.

This query would return a data object with an array of users with their id, firstname, lastname and email. It could look like this:

json
{
  "data": {
    "users": [
      {
        "id": "abc",
        "firstname": "James",
        "lastname": "Holden",
        "email": "james.holden@roci.com"
      },
      {
        "id": "def",
        "firstname": "Naomi",
        "lastname": "Nagata",
        "email": "naomi.nagata@roci.com"
      }
    ]
  }
}
{
  "data": {
    "users": [
      {
        "id": "abc",
        "firstname": "James",
        "lastname": "Holden",
        "email": "james.holden@roci.com"
      },
      {
        "id": "def",
        "firstname": "Naomi",
        "lastname": "Nagata",
        "email": "naomi.nagata@roci.com"
      }
    ]
  }
}

You may ask: why is there a nested users property on data? Why isn't the array directly on data?

This is because you can select multiple root fields in a GraphQL operation:

graphql
query getCatsAndDogs {
  cats {
    id
  }

  dogs {
    id
  }
}
query getCatsAndDogs {
  cats {
    id
  }

  dogs {
    id
  }
}

In this case, the result could look like this:

json
{
  "data": {
    "cats": [
      { "id": "abc" },
      { "id": "def" }
    ],
    "dogs": [
      { "id": "ghi" },
      { "id": "jkl" }
    ]
  }
}
{
  "data": {
    "cats": [
      { "id": "abc" },
      { "id": "def" }
    ],
    "dogs": [
      { "id": "ghi" },
      { "id": "jkl" }
    ]
  }
}

There can also be other optional properties on the result alongside data:

  • errors : an array of errors returned by the server
  • extensions : additional informations such as execution timings

useQuery ​

The main composition function used to execute queries is useQuery. In your component, start by importing it:

vue
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'

export default {
  setup () {
    // Your data & logic here...
  },
}
</script>
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'

export default {
  setup () {
    // Your data & logic here...
  },
}
</script>

You can use useQuery in your setup option and pass it a GraphQL document as the first parameter. Then retrieve the query result:

vue
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)
  },
}
</script>
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)
  },
}
</script>

Note that result here is a Ref holding the data from the result returned by Apollo.

If you want to directly access the data object, use result.value:

vue
<script>
import { watch } from 'vue'
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    watch(() => {
      console.log(result.value)
    })
  },
}
</script>
<script>
import { watch } from 'vue'
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    watch(() => {
      console.log(result.value)
    })
  },
}
</script>

In this example, you could also watch the Ref directly:

vue
<script>
import { watch } from 'vue'
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    watch(result, value => {
      console.log(value)
    })
  },
}
</script>
<script>
import { watch } from 'vue'
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    watch(result, value => {
      console.log(value)
    })
  },
}
</script>

Let's expose our result in the template:

vue
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    return {
      result,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <ul>
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    return {
      result,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <ul>
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>

Beware that result may not contain your data at all time! It will initially be undefined until the query successfully completes. So it's a good idea to add a conditional before rendering the data:

vue
<template>
  <ul v-if="result && result.users">
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>
<template>
  <ul v-if="result && result.users">
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>

We can use a computed prop to simplify access to part of the result and to provide a default value:

vue
<script>
import { computed } from 'vue'
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    const users = computed(() => result.value?.users ?? [])

    return {
      users,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <ul>
    <li v-for="user of users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>
<script>
import { computed } from 'vue'
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    const users = computed(() => result.value?.users ?? [])

    return {
      users,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <ul>
    <li v-for="user of users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>

Query status ​

Loading state ​

Alongside result, useQuery returns loading, a boolean Ref tracking the loading state of the query:

vue
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, loading } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    return {
      result,
      loading,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div v-if="loading">Loading...</div>

  <ul v-else-if="result && result.users">
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, loading } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    return {
      result,
      loading,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div v-if="loading">Loading...</div>

  <ul v-else-if="result && result.users">
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>

Error ​

There is also an error Ref that holds any error that may occur during the request:

vue
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, loading, error } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    return {
      result,
      loading,
      error,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div v-if="loading">Loading...</div>

  <div v-else-if="error">Error: {{ error.message }}</div>

  <ul v-else-if="result && result.users">
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, loading, error } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    return {
      result,
      loading,
      error,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div v-if="loading">Loading...</div>

  <div v-else-if="error">Error: {{ error.message }}</div>

  <ul v-else-if="result && result.users">
    <li v-for="user of result.users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>
  </ul>
</template>

Variables ​

You can pass a variables object to the 2nd parameter of useQuery:

js
const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, {
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})
const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, {
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

Variables Ref ​

You can change them later by retrieving their variables Ref:

js
const { result, variables } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, {
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

function selectUser (id) {
  variables.value = {
    id,
  }
}
const { result, variables } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, {
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

function selectUser (id) {
  variables.value = {
    id,
  }
}

TIP

This will re-fetch the query each time a property from the variables object changes.

Alternatively, you can pass a Ref directly:

js
import { ref } from 'vue'
import { ref } from 'vue'
js
const variables = ref({
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, variables)

function selectUser (id) {
  variables.value = {
    id,
  }
}
const variables = ref({
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, variables)

function selectUser (id) {
  variables.value = {
    id,
  }
}

Reactive object ​

You can also pass a reactive object:

js
import { reactive } from 'vue'
import { reactive } from 'vue'
js
const variables = reactive({
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, variables)

function selectUser (id) {
  variables.id = id
}
const variables = reactive({
  id: 'abc-abc-abc',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, variables)

function selectUser (id) {
  variables.id = id
}

This also means you can pass props from setup directly, since props is already a reactive object:

js
export default {
  props: ['id'],

  setup (props) {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
        user (id: $id) {
          id
          email
        }
      }
    `, props)

    return {
      result,
    }
  },
}
export default {
  props: ['id'],

  setup (props) {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
        user (id: $id) {
          id
          email
        }
      }
    `, props)

    return {
      result,
    }
  },
}

But beware if you add new props that aren't used in the GraphQL document, you will run into GraphQL validation errors!

Variables function ​

Finally, you can pass variables as a function returning an object:

js
export default {
  props: ['id'],

  setup (props) {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
        user (id: $id) {
          id
          email
        }
      }
    `, () => ({
      id: props.id,
    }))

    return {
      result,
    }
  },
}
export default {
  props: ['id'],

  setup (props) {
    const { result } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
        user (id: $id) {
          id
          email
        }
      }
    `, () => ({
      id: props.id,
    }))

    return {
      result,
    }
  },
}

This variables function will be made reactive automatically, so whenever props.id changes, the variables object of the query will be updated.

This syntax is also useful if you want to use some Refs in the variables:

js
const id = ref('abc-abc-abc')

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, () => ({
  id: id.value
}))

function selectUser (id) {
  id.value = id
}
const id = ref('abc-abc-abc')

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUserById ($id: ID!) {
    user (id: $id) {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, () => ({
  id: id.value
}))

function selectUser (id) {
  id.value = id
}

Options ​

The third parameter of useQuery is an options object, used to configure your query.

Like variables, you can pass a Ref, a reactive object or a function that will automatically be reactive.

Using a Ref:

js
const options = ref({
  fetchPolicy: 'cache-first',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUsers {
    users {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, null, options)
const options = ref({
  fetchPolicy: 'cache-first',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUsers {
    users {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, null, options)

Using a reactive object:

js
const options = reactive({
  fetchPolicy: 'cache-first',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUsers {
    users {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, null, options)
const options = reactive({
  fetchPolicy: 'cache-first',
})

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUsers {
    users {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, null, options)

Using a function that will automatically be reactive:

js
const fetchPolicy = ref('cache-first')

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUsers {
    users {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, null, () => ({
  fetchPolicy: fetchPolicy.value
}))
const fetchPolicy = ref('cache-first')

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  query getUsers {
    users {
      id
      email
    }
  }
`, null, () => ({
  fetchPolicy: fetchPolicy.value
}))

See the API Reference for all the possible options.

Disable a query ​

You can disable and re-enable a query with the enabled option:

js
const enabled = ref(false)

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, () => ({
  enabled: enabled.value,
}))

function enableQuery () {
  enabled.value = true
}
const enabled = ref(false)

const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, () => ({
  enabled: enabled.value,
}))

function enableQuery () {
  enabled.value = true
}

Fetch Policy ​

The fetchPolicy option allows you to customize how the query will use the Apollo Client cache.

js
const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, {
  fetchPolicy: 'cache-and-network',
})
const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, {
  fetchPolicy: 'cache-and-network',
})

Available values are:

  • cache-first (default): return result from cache. Only fetch from network if cached result is not available.
  • cache-and-network: return result from cache first (if it exists), then return network result once it's available.
  • cache-only: return result from cache if available, fail otherwise.
  • network-only: return result from network, fail if network call doesn't succeed, save to cache.
  • no-cache: return result from network, fail if network call doesn't succeed, don't save to cache.

Updating cached results ​

When a query is completed, it will update the cache with the result data (depending on the fetch policy). This improves performance the next time the data needs to be rendered in your application and ensures that all components relying on a piece of data is always consistent.

However, you sometimes want to make sure that this data is up-to-date compared to the server.

Polling ​

Polling means repeatedly calling the server to automatically update the query data.

You can enable polling with the pollInterval which will be the interval in ms between each requests repeatedly made to the server.

In this example, we will poll the server every second:

js
const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, {
  pollInterval: 1000,
})
const { result } = useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, {
  pollInterval: 1000,
})

Refetching ​

The other way is manually executing the query again in response to an event, as opposed to using a fixed interval.

This is done using the refetch function:

vue
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, loading, error, refetch } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    const users = computed(() => result.value?.users)

    return {
      users,
      loading,
      error,
      refetch,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div v-if="loading">Loading...</div>

  <div v-else-if="error">Error: {{ error.message }}</div>

  <ul v-else-if="users">
    <li v-for="user of users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>

    <button @click="refetch()">Refresh</button>
  </ul>
</template>
<script>
import { useQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, loading, error, refetch } = useQuery(gql`
      query getUsers {
        users {
          id
          firstname
          lastname
          email
        }
      }
    `)

    const users = computed(() => result.value?.users)

    return {
      users,
      loading,
      error,
      refetch,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div v-if="loading">Loading...</div>

  <div v-else-if="error">Error: {{ error.message }}</div>

  <ul v-else-if="users">
    <li v-for="user of users" :key="user.id">
      {{ user.firstname }} {{ user.lastname }}
    </li>

    <button @click="refetch()">Refresh</button>
  </ul>
</template>

Event hooks ​

useQuery returns event hooks allowing you to execute code when a specific event occurs.

onResult ​

This is called whenever a new result is available.

js
const { onResult } = useQuery(...)

onResult(queryResult => {
  console.log(queryResult.data)
  console.log(queryResult.loading)
  console.log(queryResult.networkStatus)
  console.log(queryResult.stale)
})
const { onResult } = useQuery(...)

onResult(queryResult => {
  console.log(queryResult.data)
  console.log(queryResult.loading)
  console.log(queryResult.networkStatus)
  console.log(queryResult.stale)
})

You can pass the notifyOnNetworkStatusChange option to force the query to trigger a new result when the network status or error is updated:

js
useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, {
  notifyOnNetworkStatusChange: true,
})
useQuery(gql`
  ...
`, null, {
  notifyOnNetworkStatusChange: true,
})

onError ​

It is triggered when an error occurs:

js
const { onError } = useQuery(...)

onError(error => {
  console.log(error.graphQLErrors)
  console.log(error.networkError)
})
const { onError } = useQuery(...)

onError(error => {
  console.log(error.graphQLErrors)
  console.log(error.networkError)
})

You can use the logErrorMessages function from the @vue/apollo-util package to format the error in the browser console:

js
import { logErrorMessages } from '@vue/apollo-util'

const { onError } = useQuery(...)

onError(error => {
  logErrorMessages(error)
})
import { logErrorMessages } from '@vue/apollo-util'

const { onError } = useQuery(...)

onError(error => {
  logErrorMessages(error)
})

Example error:

Error log screenshot

If you are using Webpack or Vue CLI, it's a good idea to only use it in development:

js
import { logErrorMessages } from '@vue/apollo-util'

const { onError } = useQuery(...)

onError(error => {
  if (process.env.NODE_ENV !== 'production') {
    logErrorMessages(error)
  }
})
import { logErrorMessages } from '@vue/apollo-util'

const { onError } = useQuery(...)

onError(error => {
  if (process.env.NODE_ENV !== 'production') {
    logErrorMessages(error)
  }
})

That way it will be dropped when compiling the project for production.

Lazy query ​

If you need to wait before starting a query, you can use useLazyQuery instead of useQuery. It returns an additional load function to start querying your API.

Example:

vue
<script>
import { computed } from 'vue'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'
import { useLazyQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, load } = useLazyQuery(gql`
      query list {
        list
      }
    `)
    const list = computed(() => result.value?.list ?? [])

    return {
      load,
      list,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div class="m-6">
    <button
      class="bg-green-200 rounded-lg p-4"
      @click="load()"
    >
      Load list
    </button>

    <ul class="my-4">
      <li
        v-for="(item, index) of list"
        :key="index"
        class="list-disc ml-6"
      >
        {{ item }}
      </li>
    </ul>
  </div>
</template>
<script>
import { computed } from 'vue'
import gql from 'graphql-tag'
import { useLazyQuery } from '@vue/apollo-composable'

export default {
  setup () {
    const { result, load } = useLazyQuery(gql`
      query list {
        list
      }
    `)
    const list = computed(() => result.value?.list ?? [])

    return {
      load,
      list,
    }
  },
}
</script>

<template>
  <div class="m-6">
    <button
      class="bg-green-200 rounded-lg p-4"
      @click="load()"
    >
      Load list
    </button>

    <ul class="my-4">
      <li
        v-for="(item, index) of list"
        :key="index"
        class="list-disc ml-6"
      >
        {{ item }}
      </li>
    </ul>
  </div>
</template>

Getting the result ​

load() returns a Promise to the result of the first request if it's the first time the query is activated.

js
const { result, load, refetch } = useLazyQuery(gql`
  query list {
    list
  }
`)
// ...

async function myLoad () {
  try {
    const result = await load()
  } catch (e) {
    // Handle error
  }
}
const { result, load, refetch } = useLazyQuery(gql`
  query list {
    list
  }
`)
// ...

async function myLoad () {
  try {
    const result = await load()
  } catch (e) {
    // Handle error
  }
}

Refetch lazy query ​

load() returns false if it is not the first time the query is activated. You can use this to refetch the query with refetch() in case the user clicks on the button again, meaning load() returns false.

js
const { result, load, refetch } = useLazyQuery(gql`
  query list {
    list
  }
`)
// ...

function loadOrRefetch () {
  load() || refetch()
}
const { result, load, refetch } = useLazyQuery(gql`
  query list {
    list
  }
`)
// ...

function loadOrRefetch () {
  load() || refetch()
}

Released under the MIT License.